Dust - yesterday, salad - today
Two centuries have passed since the salad was brought from Europe to Russia. At the royal court he was received “with a bang”, but the bulk of the gardeners simply was not needed: there were plenty of dreams, sorrel, nettles around. Only at the end of this century lettuce was desired in the garden.
Recently created a variety of varieties of salad. They differ in shape and color of leaves: from light to dark green, from pink to dark red and brown. There are varieties with a smooth leaf and are completely bubbly and even wrinkled, the edge of the leaf is even or twists into intricate scallops. The leaf itself is either delicate silky (“oily”), then thick, juicy, crunchy.
Varieties of lettuce can be divided into four types: leaf, cabbage, romaine and stem.
Let's try to understand together the variety of salads and the features of their agricultural technology.
Stall type lettuce differs in that leaves are torn from it, without pulling out plants. The leaves are large, whole (oblong, triangular, fan-shaped) or cut (oak-leaf, dissected).
We name varieties:
Ballet - for growing in sheltered ground in winter and early spring, on beds - all summer. The leaf is crisp, dark green, large, fan-shaped, the edge of the leaf is scalloped. Resistant to shooting and low light. Plant weight 300-600 g.
Dubachek MS - for open ground. The leaves are light green, oak-leaved. It weighs up to 250 g. It is resistant to shooting.
Robin - oak-leaved, similar to Dubachek MS, but the leaves are less succulent and stained with anthocyanin in intense violet-cherry color.
Emerald - for winter-spring traffic. Mid-season. The leaf is obovate, dark green, finely bubbled. The weight of the plant is 60 g. It does not grow old for a long time, has a great taste, and is resistant to stalking.
Kritset - for sheltered (sowing since February) and open ground. Early ripening, ripens in 40-45 days. The leaf is thin; the color is from light green to yellowish. The weight of one plant is 250 g. It is resistant to stem and heat.
Other varieties: Riga, Red fire, Kamarnyansky, Moscow greenhouse, New Year.
Rolled salads are of two types: oil-leaved and crunchy-leaved. In England, Spain, Australia, and Japan, the latter are grown predominantly; in France and other countries of Western Europe, the former.
The headed (half-headed) salad ripens longer than the leaf. After 45-60 days from the appearance of seedlings, a head of cabbage of various shapes and densities is formed.
At oil lettuce the outer leaves that head out are tender, thin, and the inner leaves are oily to the touch.
Berlin yellow - for open ground.
The leaves are light green with a yellowish tinge. Head of cabbage weighs up to 300 g, medium density.
Festival - for open ground. The leaves are green with a grayish bloom, the edge is slightly wavy. Head of cabbage weighing up to 400 g, dense, white-yellow inside.
Noran - for sheltered soil. Head up to 250 g. Leaves are pale green with a slightly wavy edge.
Kado (half-rolled) - for open ground. Mid-ripening, ripens in 35-70 days from germination. The leaf is reddish with a strong solid anthocyanin color. The head of cabbage weighs 200 g.
Moscow region - for open ground. A medium to early, round head of cabbage weighing 200 g matures in 40-70 days. The leaf is green. A matured head of cabbage does not lose its qualities on the vine for up to ten days.
Sesame (half-rolled) - universal. Mid-ripening, ripens in 45-60 days. The leaf is dark green with a strong anthocyanin color. The round head weighs 300 g.
Other varieties: Attraction, Painted Stubborn, Contribution, Libuse.
The most famous of the crunchy Kucheravey, Odessa (half-headed), but there are also new ones: Olympus, Olympus, Tarzan, Celtic, Roxett, Saladin, Quick, Siren.
Pianoforte (half-rolled) - for open ground. The leaves are dark green, fan-shaped. The head of cabbage weighs up to 500 g. In density, it is not inferior to a fork of cabbage.
Big head - for open ground, can be grown in spring and summer. The leaves in the outlet are light green with pale pink pigmentation along the edge, fan-shaped. Round head up to 400 g, inside is light yellow.
© Carl E Lewis
Romen salads form an oblong head of cabbage of different density (depending on the variety). The leaves in the outlet are directed vertically upwards, which is typical only for varieties of this group. On imported seed bags, Cos is usually marked.
Veradartz - a head of lettuce. The head of cabbage is elongated-oval. The outer leaves are green, and the inner ones are light green.
Other varieties: Paris, Sovsky, Balon.
Stem (asparagus) salads, in which the main edible part is the stem. Their leaves are narrow, but the stem is thickened. They are cut raw into a salad, and cooked in boiled form, like asparagus. In Russia, such salads are popular in the Far East, and abroad - in Korea, Japan, China,
Sowing is from spring to autumn. The salad grows on all soils; there would be watering, a sufficient area and a well-lit corner. And when nothing obscures it, it grows like a crop compactor.
Salad can be grown through seedlings. This method has many advantages: seeds are saved (thinning is excluded), a third of the growing season, the salad is on the beds in the optimal growing mode, seedlings can be placed on the beds, freed from early vegetables. Upon receipt of seedlings in a protected ground, a “race” is created for an early harvest.
© Frank C. Müller
Sow seeds in boxes or directly into the soil of the insulated greenhouse in rows at a distance of 5 cm (if seedling is then planned) and 10 cm (without picking). The seeding rate for seedlings followed by picking 1-1.5 g per 1 sq. M and 0.5 g per square meter without picking. The depth of the groove is up to 1 cm. Two weeks after germination, peel the seedlings in pots of 3 × 3 or 6 × 6 cm in size.
Seedlings are ready for planting after 3-4 real leaflets have developed or 30-40 days after emergence. It is very important not to deepen it - when planting, make sure that the root neck is not below the soil level. Plant seedlings necessarily in moist soil. Any adverse factors during the transplant can inhibit growth and lead to bloom. Planting pattern for compact early ripe varieties - 20 × 20 cm, and for large varieties -35 × 35 cm.
Plant care is common: weeding, top dressing and watering. Fertilizing with nitrogen-potassium fertilizers is needed during the period of intensive leaf growth, but before they close. For normal growth, lettuce plants require constant watering.
Start spring sowing as early as possible. To organize a “green conveyor”, it is better to sow a salad at short intervals (after two to three weeks), especially since with a delay in harvesting the formed heads of cabbage quickly shoot and become inedible. In dry weather, regular watering is especially necessary, since the root system of salads is poorly developed and almost all is in a layer of 6-10 cm.
Readiness for harvesting is determined by the size of the outlet and the density of the head typical for this variety. To make sure the head is firm enough, lightly press the back of your hand on the plant. If the leaf does not bend, you can’t procrastinate with harvesting - most varieties are bitter after stalking; leaf varieties are the exception. Head out, cutting them off at the base with a few fresh rosette leaves.
In areas with mild winters, lettuce can also be grown with winter sowing, but (a prerequisite) should not leave crops for winter, but plants with a rosette of 5-6 leaves. The salad is relatively cold-resistant and can withstand frosts to minus 10 °, and under snow to minus 20 °. Important:
- do not thicken the sowing, observe the recommended planting pattern;
- when planting seedlings do not deepen the root neck;
- Do not dry the soil.
And finally, let me remind you: the salad contains all the currently known vitamins. To prevent atherosclerosis and many intestinal diseases, it is enough to eat 100-150 g of salad daily. Think about your health and grow more salads, because it is so simple.
It is no coincidence that at the beginning of the article we mentioned dreams and nettles. So far, lettuce has grown, and the nettles and chamomile already turn green with might and main. It is interesting to compare the nutrient content in leaf lettuce, nettle and dash:
Nutrient content in herbaceous plants
|Vitamin C, mg%||7-40||200||155|
By the way, the rot has a pronounced anti-zingotic effect, improves the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract, and helps to remove excess fluid from the body. It has long been used in the treatment of gout, renal failure, disorders of the bladder.
The combination of trace elements of iron, copper and manganese makes it suitable for medical nutrition in some forms of anemia. Dust is used as a painkiller, wound healing, emollient.
In the southern bazaars, vegetable greens are blasted with greed so that it remains fresh for a long time.
The corn is harvested for the future, it is salted, fermented, pickled and dried, and in the winter they bake cakes and cook various seasonings. In Chuvashia, the soup from the "Serde" dream is a traditional folk dish.
So, when cultivating cultivated plants, do not neglect the wild ones.
Authors: L. Shashilova, breeder of Pushkin, Leningrad region